Eye surgery

Proper sterile precautions are taken to prepare the area for surgery, including use of antiseptics like povidone-iodine. Cardiovascular monitoring is preferable in local anesthesia and is mandatory in general anesthesia.

An eye speculum is inserted to keep the eyes wide open. By opening up the canal, the pressure inside the eye can be reduced.

Topical anesthesia using lidocaine topical gel is preferred for quick procedures. Canaloplasty utilizes microcatheter technology in a simple and minimally invasive procedure.

Due to the high prevalence of cataracts, cataract extraction is the most common eye surgery. Long-term results are available, published in the Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. With approximately 1.2 million procedures each year, extraocular muscle surgery is the third most common eye surgery in the United States . Oculoplastic surgery refers to Specialist Reconstructive and Cosmetic (aesthetic) surgery in the eyelid region of the face for abnormalities which may be present by birth or acquired later by aging, accident or tumour etc. This includes eyelid cysts and tumours, malpositions such as drooping eyelids ( ptosis ), inturning ( entropion) or outturning ( ectropion ) of lid margin, staring eyes in thyroid eye disease, watering eyes, facial palsy rehabilitation and artificial ( prosthetic ) eyes. Oculoplastic surgeons also undertake aesthetic treatments and surgery to improve the cosmetic appearance of the face, such as blepharoplasty (eyelid lift) to remove excess overhanging skin of the upper eyelids and puffy bags from under the eyes ; brow lift, Botox and dermal filler injections to remove wrinkles ( crow feet) , forehead lines and tear trough deformity Many of these described procedures are historical and are not recommended due to a risk of complications.

Many university programmes allow patients to specify if they want to be operated upon by the consultant or the resident / fellow. Anesthesia is essential for any eye surgery. In topical anesthesia, patient cooperation is a must for a smooth procedure.

General anesthesia is recommended for children, traumatic eye injuries, major orbitotomies and for apprehensive patients. Sterile drapes, gowns and gloves are a must.

A microcatheter circumnavigates the canal around the iris, enlarging the main drainage channel and its smaller collector channels through the injection of a sterile, gel-like material called viscoelastic. There are many types of glaucoma surgery, and variations or combinations of those types, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous humor. Canaloplasty is an advanced, nonpenetrating procedure designed to enhance drainage through the eye’s natural drainage system to provide sustained reduction of IOP.

To perform a canaloplasty, an Ophthalmologist creates a tiny incision to gain access to a canal in the eye. Local anesthesia is most commonly used.

Retrobulbar and peribulbar techniques for infiltrating the local area surrounding the eye muscle cone are used to immobilize the extraocular muscles and eliminate pain sensation. Rest after surgery is recommended. Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP).

For anxious patients, supplementation with a facial nerve block using lidocaine and bupivacaine is recommended. Although the terms Laser Eye Surgery and Refractive surgery are commonly used as if they were interchangeable, this is not the case. If visual loss is significant, surgical removal of the lens may be warranted, with lost optical power usually replaced with a plastic intraocular lens (IOL).

Particularly, these include operations done on ciliary body in an attempt to control glaucoma, since highly safer surgeries for glaucoma, including lasers, non-penetrating surgery, guarded filtration surgery and seton valve implants have been invented. Anesthesiology · Cardiac surgery · Cardiothoracic surgery · Colorectal surgery · General surgery · Neurosurgery · Oral and maxillofacial surgery · Orthopedic surgery (Hand surgery) · Otolaryngology (ENT) · Pediatric surgery · Plastic surgery · Podiatric surgery · Surgical oncology · Thoracic surgery · Transplant surgery · Trauma surgery · Urology · Vascular surgery Andrology · Cardiology · Dermatology · Endocrinology · Gastroenterology · Gynaecology · Hematology · Hepatology · Immunology · Neonatology · Nephrology · Neurology · Oncology · Pulmonology · Rheumatology · Urology Clinical laboratory sciences (Cellular pathology, Clinical chemistry, Clinical microbiology, Clinical immunology, Transfusion medicine) · Radiology (Interventional radiology, Nuclear medicine) · Pathology (Anatomical, Clinical) · Clinical neurophysiology Allergy · Pediatrics · Disaster medicine · Emergency medicine · Family medicine · Fertility medicine · General practice · Obstetrics  · Occupational medicine · Angiology · Ophthalmology · Palliative care · Pediatrics · Adolescent medicine · Physical medicine and rehabilitation (Physiatry) · Preventive medicine (Public health) · Psychiatry · Reproductive medicine · Sleep medicine · Sports medicine · Transplantation medicine · Tropical medicine Biomedical research · Epidemiology · History of medicine · Hospital medicine · Medical education · Medical genetics · Medical school · Osteopathic medicine · Personalized medicine · Pharmacy · Physician (MD/MBBS and DO) · Physician assistant · Nurse practitioner · Chief Physician · DPM · Predictive medicine . Eye surgery, also known as orogolomistician surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.

An expert eye surgeon must identify the need for specific procedure and be responsible for conducting the procedure safely. Although most eye surgery can be performed by an experienced general ophthalmologist, more complex procedures are usually done by one who is fellowship (medicine) trained. The eye is a fragile organ, requiring extreme care before, during and after a surgical procedure.

The catheter is then removed and a suture is placed within the canal and tightened. Lasers may be used to treat nonrefractive conditions (e.g.

A plastic sheet with a receptacle helps collect the fluids during phacoemulsification. to seal a retinal tear), while radial keratotomy is an example of refractive surgery without the use of a laser. A cataract is an opacification or cloudiness of the eye s crystalline lens due to aging, disease, or trauma that typically prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina.